Temptation in a Time of Quarantine: How Screwtape Uses Pandemics

In The Screwtape Letters, C. S. Lewis allows us to eavesdrop on a correspondence between a senior devil named Screwtape and his nephew Wormwood on the art of tempting humans. This talk will expose some of the techniques Screwtape might be using to sow discord within families during the pandemic.

Louis Markos

Louis Markos holds a BA in English and History from Colgate University and an MA and PhD in English from the University of Michigan. He is a Professor of English and Scholar in Residence at Houston Baptist University, where he teaches courses on British Romantic and Victorian Poetry and Prose, the Classics, C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien, and Art and Film. Dr. Markos holds the Robert H. Ray Chair in Humanities and lectures on Ancient Greece and Rome, the Early Church and Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Romanticism for HBU’s Honors College. He is the author of eighteen books, including From Achilles to Christ, On the Shoulders of Hobbits, Literature: A Student’s Guide, CSL: An Apologist for Education, three Canon Press Worldview Guides to the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, & two children’s novels, The Dreaming Stone and In the Shadow of Troy, in which his kids become part of Greek Mythology and the Iliad and Odyssey. His son Alex teaches Latin at the Geneva School in Boerne, TX and his daughter Anastasia teaches music at Founders Classical Academy in Lewisville, TX.

Hektor and Andromache: Balance in a World Gone Mad

In Book VI, Homer offers us a sort of Iliad in miniature: a self-contained narrative that carries the reader from war to peace, division to reconciliation, barbarism to civilization. We will discuss the various, underlying tensions, and then closely analyze the farewell scene between Hektor and his wife, Andromache. This scene embodies the universal, human need to find stability in the midst of chaos and meaning in the midst of existential despair. Attendees are encouraged to bring a copy of the Lattimore translation of the Iliad.

Louis Markos

Louis Markos holds a BA in English and History from Colgate University and an MA and PhD in English from the University of Michigan. He is a Professor of English and Scholar in Residence at Houston Baptist University, where he teaches courses on British Romantic and Victorian Poetry and Prose, the Classics, C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien, and Art and Film. Dr. Markos holds the Robert H. Ray Chair in Humanities and lectures on Ancient Greece and Rome, the Early Church and Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Romanticism for HBU’s Honors College. He is the author of eighteen books, including From Achilles to Christ, On the Shoulders of Hobbits, Literature: A Student’s Guide, CSL: An Apologist for Education, three Canon Press Worldview Guides to the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, & two children’s novels, The Dreaming Stone and In the Shadow of Troy, in which his kids become part of Greek Mythology and the Iliad and Odyssey. His son Alex teaches Latin at the Geneva School in Boerne, TX and his daughter Anastasia teaches music at Founders Classical Academy in Lewisville, TX.

Living in an Eschatological Universe: Virgil’s Aeneid and The Fall of Troy

It was Virgil – not in opposition to, but alongside the Bible – who taught Christian Europe the shape of history, the power that moves it forward, the primacy of duty, the pain of letting go and the burden of adapting new strategies. In this lecture, we will explore the scenes of e Aeneid: Book II, opening up the way in which Virgil presents the destruction of Troy as a happy fall (felix culpa) and as a great tragedy that provides the seed out of which greater good would come. Attendees are encouraged to bring with them a copy of the Fitzgerald translation of e Aeneid.

Louis Markos

Louis Markos holds a BA in English and History from Colgate University and an MA and PhD in English from the University of Michigan. He is a Professor of English and Scholar in Residence at Houston Baptist University, where he teaches courses on British Romantic and Victorian Poetry and Prose, the Classics, C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien, and Art and Film. Dr. Markos holds the Robert H. Ray Chair in Humanities and lectures on Ancient Greece and Rome, the Early Church and Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Romanticism for HBU’s Honors College. He is the author of eighteen books, including From Achilles to Christ, On the Shoulders of Hobbits, Literature: A Student’s Guide, CSL: An Apologist for Education, three Canon Press Worldview Guides to the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, & two children’s novels, The Dreaming Stone and In the Shadow of Troy, in which his kids become part of Greek Mythology and the Iliad and Odyssey. His son Alex teaches Latin at the Geneva School in Boerne, TX and his daughter Anastasia teaches music at Founders Classical Academy in Lewisville, TX.

Aslan in the Academy: What C.S. Lewis Can Teach the Modern Christian Educator

Louis Markos

Louis Markos holds a BA in English and History from Colgate University and an MA and PhD in English from the University of Michigan. He is a Professor of English and Scholar in Residence at Houston Baptist University, where he teaches courses on British Romantic and Victorian Poetry and Prose, the Classics, C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien, and Art and Film. Dr. Markos holds the Robert H. Ray Chair in Humanities and lectures on Ancient Greece and Rome, the Early Church and Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Romanticism for HBU’s Honors College. He is the author of eighteen books, including From Achilles to Christ, On the Shoulders of Hobbits, Literature: A Student’s Guide, CSL: An Apologist for Education, three Canon Press Worldview Guides to the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, & two children’s novels, The Dreaming Stone and In the Shadow of Troy, in which his kids become part of Greek Mythology and the Iliad and Odyssey. His son Alex teaches Latin at the Geneva School in Boerne, TX and his daughter Anastasia teaches music at Founders Classical Academy in Lewisville, TX.

What Hath Dante to do with Biology

The short answer is, within the modern conception of biology, nothing. No piece of literature fits within the modern framework of biology. Even history does not really fit. Of course Darwin is talked about in the chapter on evolution, and Mendel is mentioned in the introduction to genetics. Perhaps Harvey is mentioned in the chapter on the circulatory system, but not much else. But this is hardly meaningful. Why is this? For two reasons: first, it is because the modern biology textbook, along with any other science textbook, is what we understand about that subject at this point in time. The twists and turns of the past are not necessary when compared with the volume of science information to know right now. Secondly, science is seen as an independent subject. Philosophical foundations do not need to be considered, and theology has no influence on it at all. Modern science at best is merely about living well in the here and now or looking to the future. How can this system fit into classical education? In short, it can- not. However, there is a way to restructure biology so that it can fit within a classical model which makes Dante both relevant and necessary to the curriculum. Biology can be taught in a way that is faithful to the integrity of the disci- pline of biology as well as following an historical progres- sion that allows philosophy, history, and literature to be integrated into the curriculum and thus be conducive to our classical model. The older categories of natural history and natural philosophy have a way of being recovered.1 It is all in the sequencing of the material.

 

Basically the content of modern biology is done backwards and needs to be turned around. The first quarter should start with the human body and not microbiology. The systems of the body are learned along with the pro- cesses, e.g. circulation, necessary for sustaining human life. In my class we focus on the integration of parts and pro- cesses as opposed to going into depth for particular parts.


It is sufficient for my students to know the 11 systems, the parts within those systems, their purpose, and how they interconnect with each other. The final test of the quarter is a one-question essay, “You eat a ham and cheese, lettuce, tomato, mayo, and mustard sandwich. How does this affect every system in your body? Discuss every system, its parts, purposes, and their integration. Also discuss the six main nutrients found within the sandwich and their importance for the body.”

In the second quarter the animal kingdom is discussed starting with the vertebrates and then the in- vertebrates. Major taxonomic groups are discussed, e.g. amphibians, along with how each group handles the same life processes students learned regarding their own bodies. All animals need to perform the same type of processes, but they do them in different ways. The way to test this is to give students pictures of representative creatures along with a life process. Students need to give the taxonomy
of the creature along with how it handles that specific life process. The final topic discussed is plants including tax- onomy, parts, and reproduction.

What is the historical significance of this progres- sion of material in biology? Prior to the invention of the microscope these were the only biological topics that were understood. Historically this is knowledge from the ancient civilizations in the Near East, Greece, Rome, and also that from the Middle Ages. It is during the first semester when students discuss that even though people, animals, and plants have been seen during these time periods, they have not all been seen in the same way. The Greeks valued philo- sophical wisdom and the soul more than the understand- ing of natural processes. The Romans preferred practical gadgets like aqueducts and plumbing to the philosophical ideas of the Greeks. People in the Middle Ages saw nature as emblematic of spiritual realities, much like Scripture talk- ing about creation praising God or trees and rivers clapping their hands.2 All throughout was the idea of essentialism or forms, those unchangeable essences found throughout Creation. Another idea from ancient Greece was the great chain of being that sequenced Creation into a straight line and served as a kind of taxonomic structure. These ideas are like threads throughout the curriculum. The class is a biology class and not a history of science class, but these ideas can be interwoven throughout when the material is sequenced in this way.

This leads to the third quarter, which starts with cells and the microscopic life of protists, bacteria, viruses, and fungus (yes, fungus is mostly multicellular, but this is the best way to sequence it). Following the completion of the diversity of life we discuss how the theory of evolution arose in order to account for such diversity. Evolution is discussed in terms of what Darwin understood in order to see why the theory of evolution quickly became the under- lying theory for all of biology. The history of the worldview of the Middle Ages and its change through the scientific revolution up until the late 19th century is also discussed- -and this is where Dante comes in–the details of which will be enumerated below. The last part of the third quarter is when students study ecology in the Everglades. It is impor- tant to take advantage of the natural resources in your area. The Everglades is a unique ecosystem, and the bugs are not that bad at the end of the third quarter, so that is the best time to go.

The fourth quarter is when biology will focus on all of those things nobody in the 19th century understood, the processes within cells and genetics. These processes in- clude photosynthesis, cell respiration, mitosis and meiosis. For the historical timeline it is back to the 19th century to start with Gregor Mendel and go through genetics to DNA and the process of making proteins. This completes the material of biology and now allows the class to re-evaluate the theory of evolution while examining the evolutionary history of life. It is now possible to see how the various positions on evolution and the Bible that are currently taken have roots that go back hundreds of years.

As seen with the first semester, there is an histori- cal progression to this sequencing of the material of biology that allows for not only maintaining the integrity of biology as a subject but also providing space for the integration of other disciplines such as history, literature, and philosophy. There are several other benefits as well. There is a progres- sion of material from concrete to abstract. The ninth grad- ers in biology class are really just older middle-schoolers. Their world does not extend much beyond their noses, so the easiest way to hook them into the material of biology is to get them to understand how their own body works. Their minds at the beginning of the year are less able to handle the abstract nature of cell processes. These are learned in the fourth quarter when it can be tied to concrete material they have already learned. This resequencing also allows us to recapture not only the older categories of the natural science tradition but also the natural history tradi- tion. The topics of biology are treated within their com- monly understood boundaries, similar to how they have always been done within the natural history tradition. The natural science tradition, or the exploration of causes, e.g. evolution, is considered after the exploration of the categories it is attempting to explain and is not assumed from the outset.

Another benefit of this progression includes re- ducing the heat and the pressure of the origins discussion. This happens because this modern discussion is seen in the larger context of a conversation that extends back to ancient Greece when natural philosophers were asking: “What came first, mind or matter?” If the conversation has been going on for so long and a complete resolution has not yet been reached, and if you do not have all of the answers by the end of ninth grade (or ever), it is okay. Each position of science and faith can be discussed in its strongest form allowing for an understanding of how history, philosophy, and science have been influencing each other over the centuries and thus making these issues increasingly com- plicated. Pressure is also reduced through this progression because evolution, which is often the underlying assump- tion of the text, is not made the automatic assumption of the class. Think about the progression of the modern science textbook: chemistry, cells, cell processes, microbiology, and then macrobiology; there is an underlying evolution assumption built in. If you reverse this sequence, then
that underlying assumption goes away, and the theory of evolution can be discussed as a proposed explanation for the phenomena observed instead of assuming the cause of evolution as true, complete, and unproblematic and then fitting the phenomena to it.

So how does Dante fit in? Dante provides a glimpse into the medieval worldview. Recall that Inferno begins with Dante being alone in a dark wood, separated from the love of God (represented by the sun) and sur- rounded by three beasts, which represent sin. There are multiple clues within the text about why this is a comedy or that Dante will come to a good end: it is the year 1300; it is dawn; Aries is in the sky indicating the moment of creation; and it is Good Friday. In summary, the cosmos is speaking to Dante and telling him that even given his lost condi- tion, he will come to a good end. There is a harmonious structure to the cosmos where everything is in a beautiful balance and order. The spheres of the planets move around the earth because of their love for God, and they sing the music of the spheres.3 There is a cosmos that exists and not an endless, lonely universe. The cosmos (from the same root whence we get cosmetics) is the beautifier of God, showing forth the beauty of the Creator. There is a balance between the planets and the metals they form on the earth along with the four humors that flow within people. Lastly, from Dante we realize that it is love that drives people and not just the influence of the cosmos. The disordered loves of people drive them to the inferno, and the disordered loves of believers are purged in the trials of purgatory so that they can be filled with the love of God that they desire.4

This starts to change during the Renaissance and the scientific revolution. The language the cosmos speaks becomes the language of mathematics. Copernicus realizes that the math behind planetary motion becomes easier if the sun is in the center. Few people care, especially if he is only trying to save the appearances and make predictions easier. Kepler comes along and realizes that the math gets even more accurate if the sun is in the center (or at a focus) and the paths of the planets are ellipses instead of perfect circles. No big deal, as long as the attention is on making the math easier. Galileo, however, had the audacity to say that the universe moves the way Kepler describes it in reality. Newton comes along and figures out that the same math that can describe motion on the earth describes the motion of the heavens. What is called the mechanical philosophy becomes the dominant idea for understanding the universe. God is now seen as a great engineer that built a wonderful machine we are to study and now we glorify Him by figur- ing out its laws.

Life, however, could not be explained by the mecha- nists. Living things had to be accounted for by God’s direct action into creation. Living things were too complicated and thus God must have had to stick His hand into creation to make living things instead of creating a law that account- ed for them. So the 18th and early 19th centuries gave rise to the Romantic reaction against mechanism. Then Darwin developed his theory of how new species originate by the mechanism of natural selection, thus linking all organisms together through descent from a common ancestor. Now the mechanistic philosophy was complete (focus on material and efficient causes), and the total reversal of the worldview from Dante and the Middle Ages to our current one was finished. The cosmos that moved by love is now a vast emptiness of objects operating by law-like mechanism. Peo- ple who were image bearers of God with disordered loves are now just sophisticated animals struggling for survival, or ‘nature red in tooth and claw.’5 Pride as the deepest of sins becomes the self-esteem of success.6 Material things that were pointers to spiritual realities become meaningless cogs in a pointless machine. Beauty, and finally goodness and truth, become relative.7 Ironically, while Darwin built his theory of evolution on the idea that all nature is at war, current evolutionary theorists understand that nature also works by cooperation and interdependence. So the cosmos of Dante that was moved by love is perhaps lost unneces- sarily. It may be a perspective that needs to be recovered. Perhaps there is a place for natural philosophy and the exploration of formal and final causes within creation and not just the material and efficient.

So what hath Dante to do with biology? When biology is taught in an historical progression, Dante helps students understand the medieval worldview so that Dar- win can be understood as the completion of the worldview of our modern culture. As classical educators we want to innoculate our students against the modern worldview of meaningless materialism, the pride of self-esteem, the sepa- ration of God from His creation, and the lack of integration of disciplines found in modern education. Teaching biology using the above sequence of topics allows for the integra- tion of knowledge and helps students understand the worldview shift that has taken place from the Middle Ages to now. This provides a platform for seeing things differ- ently. Discussion of origins that is ripe for creating division is situated within an historical context, thus reducing ten- sion and allowing for understanding the complexities of the issue. Scripture is filled with verses of creation speaking. Perhaps exploring Dante in biology class can open students’ minds to seeing the creation outside the confines of modern science and thus hearing what the book of nature has to say.

Book Review

In 2009 shortly after taking office, President Obama appointed Arne Duncan as Secretary of Education. After only two months on the job Mr. Duncan announced that up to 82% of America’s public schools could be failing under the standards of the No Child Left Behind Act. He argued for immediate changes to the law and initiated the “Race
to the Top” to encourage innovation in the public sector of education.

Simultaneously, a less-noticed project, but one of vastly greater importance to Christian educators, arrived from James K.A. Smith. I picked up a copy right away, and I’ve since been savoring it privately and with my faculty. No “race to the top” here; if anything, it’s a race to the past, in a vein classical educators should relish. As we often muse in classical, Christian circles, most of what we teach is not new, though nearly all of it seems revolutionary.

The burden of Desiring the Kingdom (DTK) is to explore the relationship between learning and worship, and the book is organized neatly into two sections around this theme. Dr. Smith challenges the notion that learning is merely cognitive, an assertion with which we would readily agree, but which, as he points out, we often fail to recognize in practice. Because cognitive learning takes place in the context of a set of pre-cognitive, affective dispositions, the learner possesses a whole web of desires that constitute the pre-conditions of learning. Those desires are rarely, if ever, addressed through cognitive methods teachers learn in undergraduate majors such as education or even early childhood development. Rather, affective desires
are shaped by habits, practices and influences, some of which are experienced unconsciously. Even those that are recognized are rarely comprehended as having anything to do with learning.

In short, “…because our hearts are oriented primarily by desire, by what we love, and because those desires are shaped and molded by the habit-forming practices in which we participate, it is…rituals and practices…that shape our imaginations and how we orient ourselves to the world”(25). This assertion finds broad support in Aristotle and in St. Augustine, and, as such, it is neither new nor innovative. It does answer the nagging question that makes teachers scratch their heads about why Johnny can’t read (Latin). It’s not that he can’t. It’s that he won’t. He doesn’t want to do that or many other challenging inclusions in the classical, Christian curriculum because so much of his basic desire is bent in other directions by a hundred influences that put downward pressure on Latin.

Thus, Dr. Smith moves us from the modern and reductionist view of man, homo sapiens (thinking man), to the more robust view, homo liturgicus, or worshipping man (39). It is here that DTK is most relevant, taking aim squarely at “world-view talk in its distorted form” (63). I understand his argument as offering a much needed corrective to the deficiencies that have developed in the evolving concept of “worldview.”

With the broad influence of C. S. Lewis and to a narrower degree, that of Francis Shaeffer, Christian educators have become increasingly sensitive to the fact that our presuppositions are the primary drivers that determine how we make sense of our world and inform our worldview. To give due credit, we have to admit that it has been those in the reformed tradition that have led in shaping our awareness, not to mention our understanding of this important fact. Though he doesn’t say so directly, Dr. Smith, who teaches at Calvin College, seems to be conducting an intramural critique of this 50-year old worldview project, which has been influenced by a (narrowly) resurging Calvinism. Classical, Christian educators, many of whom share the reformed tradition, have good reason to pay attention. The overt emphasis upon rationalism is evident in the literature of this tradition, and it is not an overstatement to suggest that a straight line exists from reformed theologians to the centrality of logic in the classical curriculum.

While this is by no means a critical error, Dr. Smith argues that it is incomplete. The “social imaginary,” as he puts it, “is an affective, non-cognitive understanding of the world. It is described as an imaginary (rather than a theory) because it is fueled by the stuff of the imagination rather than the intellect” (68, emphasis his). Love or desire is a “structural feature of the human being” (51) and as such it aims at a vision of the good life, turning on the “the fulcrum” of habits.

This brings us to the most compelling feature of DTK, which is the attention given to “embodiment” in learning. This theme is woven throughout the first section and leads to his discussion of practices which he helpfully describes as “thick” and “thin” (82). That is to say, many of our habits, such as brushing our teeth, are inconsequential insofar as they do not shape identity—they are thin. Our vision of the good life, however, is shaped by the “thick” habits that are “rituals of ultimate concern” (86), like going to church, engaging in daily prayer. But meeting regularly with two or three friends for breakfast might fall into a thick habit, if it contributes to and expresses our sense of community and identity in relation to others (83)

Alert educators do well to reflect upon the many rituals of day-school education, testing them along the lines of this matrix. For example, a school might establish the ordered habit of having students stand when an adult enters the classroom, a thick habit that fosters respect. That same school might discover upon reflection that the lunchroom is pure chaos between 11 and 12:30 pm, assuming that how we eat is a thin habit that can be ignored. Habits are uneven and often work at cross purposes to one another.

In Part 2 Dr. Smith takes up the specific question of worship and its relevance to the educational endeavor. He admits that many attempts at formative influences in the affective domain are not explicitly religious. Noteworthy is the Cathedral of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh, which overtly borrows religious architecture for an
overtly secular purpose. Nevertheless, such influences are implicitly religious insofar as they mimic religious worship in their power and invitation to a way of being. Christian worship therefore should be considered as a precursor to education, if not its mainspring. At this point, many K-12 educators in classical, Christian schools will find DTK less helpful, but only because they may labor in contexts in which worship is excluded from the weekly or daily regimen of their independent, Christian school. DTK does not assert that chapel should be in your program. More broadly, he maintains that if man is fundamentally homo liturgicus, then what we worship—and most importantly— how we worship moves front and center and should not be overlooked.

This leads to a lengthy evaluation of worship in general, and, judging from the context, reformed worship in particular, although this may be misstating the case. Drawing upon diverse sources that form a broader historical point of view (Alexander Schmemann’s For the Life of the World, for example), Dr. Smith clearly advocates a return to an overtly sacramental view of worship and the world, which those of us in the Anglican tradition, myself included, or other liturgical traditions, would welcome.

The project weakens at this point, however, for, in spite of its length, his treatise on worship is less coherent than the first section. There is plenty to tweak the sensibilities of those in the reformed tradition, whom he assumes will not only be unfamiliar with the terminology, but experientially removed and, therefore, resistant to his liturgical proposals. Those in Orthodox, Anglican, or Catholic traditions—all of which are represented on the faculties of classical, Christian schools—will applaud the effort but leave feeling that the book only makes a good start in the right direction.

These are mild criticisms to which I would add that the book is written to the educated reader, and some will find it unnecessarily complex. While the writing style is clear, it often feels like driving down a washboard dirt road. It is heavily footnoted to the extent that the fine print is almost a book within a book. At times the attempts at emphasis or clarity bleed into redundancy. At other times it seems that the harder word could be replaced with the simpler one with a salutary effect.

Finally, there are oblique references to a variety of issues that are in current debate in the author’s circles, which may or may not attract attention from a casual reader. Nevertheless, they may clang on some ears. Two are worth mentioning, as in the reference to “the minister [who] raises her hands, and we stretch out ours to receive (emphasis mine)” (207). Okay, maybe in his church she is the minister and that’s normal; it’s not in mine. Dr. Smith is not even arguing the point, but one wonders at whom he is throwing the elbow. Perhaps more serious is the following explanatory comment which really doesn’t explain: “I don’t mean to communicate an alarmist fear of culture in the spirit of the ‘culture wars’ (which, by the way, I think are often tilting at windmills rather than targeting the real, substantive threats to Christian discipleship—fixated on gay marriage but eagerly affirming capitalism)” (126). This reviewer doesn’t think that opposing gay marriage is tilting at windmills or that it is such a great trespass to affirm free markets.

No author expects that you will agree on every point, even in serious matters. In DTK, Dr. Smith has given voice to what many classical, Christian educators have been thinking for a long time. Education is not merely the transfer of information from teacher to student, but the shaping of a whole person. If you wish to reflect on how that process might proceed, DTK is a very good place to begin the conversation.

Worldview and Media

Your students are going to movies, watching TV, reading magazines, listening to music and “facebooking” on the internet. Are they putting any thought and reflection into any of these activities, or are they just letting popular media wash over them without attempting to discern or examine the cultural influences all around them? Worldview training and cultural discernment are vital for a classically trained student in American society. This seminar shows you how to get your students to think about what they are seeing and listening to from a Christian perspective.

Peter VandeBrake

Peter Vande Brake attended Calvin College in Grand Rapids, MI, where he was an All-American decathlete and Philosophy major. He a ended seminary at Union Theological Seminary in Richmond, VA, and then did his doctoral work at Calvin Theological Seminary in Grand Rapids. He taught, coached, and was Headmaster at North Hills Classical Academy from 1996–2010. He is a leadership consultant for the CiRCE Institute and the high school principal and track coach at The Potter’s House School in Grand Rapids, an urban Christ-centered school. He is married and has two daughters.

Worldview and Media

Your students are going to movies, watching TV, reading magazines, listening to music, and “facebooking” on the internet. Are they putting any thought and reflection into any of these activites, or are they just letting popular media wash over them without attempting to discern or examine the cultural influences all around them? Worldview training and cultural discernment are vital for a classically trained student in American society. This seminar shows you how to get your students to think about what they are seeing and listening to from a Christian perspective. 

Peter Vande Brake

Headmaster, North Hills Christian Academy, Grand Rapids, MI

Dr. Vande Brake holds a B.A. in Philosophy from Calvin College, an M.Div. from Union Theological Seminary, and a Ph.D. in Systematic Theology from Calvin Theological Seminary. Dr. Vande Brake has served as a teacher, coach, and administrator at North Hills Christian Academy, becoming headmaster in 1998. He is the secretary for SCL board and serves on the CiRCE Institute board of directors.